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The Tenth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community was held at Grand Anse, Grenada, from 3-7 July 1989. All thirteen Member States of the Community were represented, twelve by their Heads of Government. In attendance were: The Hon. Lester Bird, Acting Prime Minister, Antigua and Barbuda; The Rt. Hon. Sir Lynden Pindling, Prime Minister, The Bahamas; The Rt. Hon. L. Erskine Sandiford, Prime Minister, Barbados; The Rt. Hon. Manuel Esquivel, Prime Minister, Belize; the Hon. Mary Eugenia Charles, Prime Minister, Dominica; The Rt. Hon. Herbert Blaize, Prime Minister, Grenada; His Excellency, Cde. Hugh Desmond Hoyte, S.C., President, Guyana; The Hon. Michael Manley, Prime Minister, Jamaica; The Hon. John Osborne, Chief Minister, Montserrat; Dr. the Rt. Hon. Kennedy Simmonds, Prime Minister, St. Kitts and Nevis; The Rt. Hon. John Compton, Prime Minister, Saint Lucia; The Rt. Hon. James Mitchell, Prime Minister, St. Vincent and the Grenadines; and the Hon. A. N. R. Robinson, Prime Minister, Trinidad and Tobago.

Mr. Roderick Rainford, Secretary –General of the Caribbean Community, chaired the Inaugural Session. The Rt. Hon. Herbert Blaize, Prime Minister of Grenada, delivered the Opening Address. Prime Minister Blaize, posing the question “Where are we heading for today?”, noted that, as the Caribbean peoples drew closer to the end of the Twentieth Century, they realized more than ever that their Region was in a way a microcosm of the international scene. The Prime Minister added: “In order to successfully survive, therefore, we have to reconfirm that we are one people, with the same heritage, the same history, the same culture and the same destiny.”
Speeches were also delivered by His Excellency Cde. Hugh Desmond Hoyte, S.C., President of Guyana; The Hon. Michael Manley, Prime Minister, Jamaica; Dr. the Rt. Hon. Kennedy Simmonds, Prime Minister, St. Kitts and Nevis; and the Hon. A.N.R. Robinson, Prime Minister, Trinidad and Tobago.


The Regional Economy and the Future of the Community and Common Market

The Heads of Government reviewed the performance of the regional economy since the Ninth Meeting of Conference and were encouraged by both the sustained increase in intra-regional trade and the continuing return to full free trade among Member States if the Common Market. They considered the moment propitious for a renewed commitment to the ideals of the Community and Common Market and the establishment of specific target date for the attainment of those ideals. In this context, they issued the “Grand Anse Declaration and Work Programme for the Advancement of the Integration Movement”, in which they pledged themselves to the fulfilment of all remaining obligations of the Treaty of Chaguaramas by 4th July 1993, the twentieth anniversary of CARICOM.

CARICOM In The 1990s

The Heads of Government accepted a proposal by Trinidad and Tobago that a tripartite Conference of Heads of Government and representatives of the private sector and labour be held in the latter half of 1990 to determine the strategies and policies which should be adopted to meet those challenges of economic development and integration likely to face the Region in the twenty-first century. They accepted the offer of Trinidad and Tobago to host the Conference.

The Heads of Government recognized that the goals of regional integration could be realized only with the full support and participation of the peoples of the Region. They therefore called for the establishment of mechanisms at the national and regional levels which would involve governments, the private sector, organized labour, religious community and other interest groups.

They acknowledged that the Caribbean will need to place greater emphasis on human resource development, improved competitiveness and more active promotion of services. In that connection, they recognized the pivotal role of the University of the West Indies and agreed to maintain it as a regional institution indefinitely.

The Heads of Government noted that two events would coincide in 1992 – the commemoration of the 500th Anniversary of European arrival in the hemisphere and the creation of a single European market.

They fully supported the idea of maximising the opportunities of CARIFESTA (1991) and the Quincentennial celebrations (1992) for the expression of the creative genius of the Caribbean people, for the promotion of awareness of common history, identity and common destiny, and for projecting achievements in the Region in the fields of literature, the creative arts, sports, culture, politics, economic and human development.

In this context they accepted the proposal for the establishment of a Commission of eminent West Indians under the chairmanship of Sir Shridath Ramphal, to promote the purposes of the Treaty of Chaguaramas with special emphasis on the process of public consultation and involvement of the peoples of CARICOM through leaders, teachers, writers, intellectuals, creative artists, businessmen, sportsmen, trade unionists, religious and other community organizations. They agreed that the Commission should be required to report to the Heads of Government prior to their meeting in 1992.

The Control of Drug Trafficking and Drug Abuse

Heads of Government noted the report on activities being conducted within the regional programme for Drug Abuse Abatement and Control, the elements of which they had previously authorised, and recognized the need for reinforcing regional efforts towards this end. Heads of Government considered and approved the following proposals which are designed to create appropriate international mechanisms for assisting individual states to combat drug trafficking.

(a) the proposal by Jamaica that a multilateral force be established under the aegis of the United Nations which would provide assistance in particular situations requiring intelligence and interdiction capabilities beyond the resources of individual states: and

(b) the proposal by Trinidad and Tobago that Commissions of Inquiry and an International Criminal Court be established which would be capable of investigating and adjudicating on the criminal responsibility of persons engaged in offences such as drug trafficking.

Heads of Government agreed to support these proposals during the Forty-Fourth Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and to seek support for them from Commonwealth Heads of Government when they meet later this year.

CARICOM Honour for Outstanding CARICOM Nationals

The Heads of Government noted the progress made in the implementation of the proposals of the Ninth Meeting with regard to the conferment of the honour of the Order of the Caribbean Community on outstanding CARICOM nationals. They urged Member States to expedite their consideration of the draft Inter-Governmental Agreement for the creation of the Order of the Caribbean Community so as to permit the first awards to be made at their Eleventh Meeting.

Establishment of Caribbean Court of Appeal

The Heads of Government noted with satisfaction the progress made with regard to the establishment of a Caribbean Court of Appeal to replace the Privy Council as the final appellate court in the Commonwealth Caribbean. They agreed to the establishment of a regional Judicial Service Commission which would be responsible for the appointment of judges of the Court, other than the President of the Court, and looked forward to the early completion of the draft Inter-Governmental Agreement to establish the court.

Assembly of Caribbean Parliamentarians

Heads of Government welcomed the proposal put forward by Barbados for the establishment of an Assembly of Caribbean Parliamentarians as an important new dimension to the regional integration movement.

The Heads agreed that the creation of the Assembly would be an important means of involving the peoples of CARICOM more fully in the integration process through their parliamentary representatives. It would serve as a catalyst in shaping regional public opinion, giving direction to the integration movement and preparing the Caribbean to meet the challenges and opportunities of the Twenty-First Century. They stressed, however, that the Assembly would be a deliberative body with no legislative powers and that it would in no way impinge upon the sovereignty and constitutional independence of Member States, but would provide an important new forum for the discussion of regional issues.

In order to advance arrangements for the establishment of the Assembly, Conference appointed a Ministerial Committee of representatives from Antigua and Barbuda, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago to join Barbados in examining and making recommendations concerning the functioning of the Assembly, bearing in mind the need to keep costs to a minimum.

The Heads of Government congratulated Barbados on the 350th anniversary of the establishment of its Parliament and accepted its offer to host the Inaugural Meeting of the Assembly.

CARICOM Stock Exchange

The Heads of Government deliberated on the establishment of a CARICOM Stock Exchange and, while welcoming the proposal, recognised that a number of Member States required further details and a more in-depth analysis of the topic prior to a general acceptance of the concept.
It was agreed that Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, each with established Stock Exchanges, would cooperate to give effect to trading of shares across the three countries.
It was also agreed that a Committee of representatives of central banks, and stock exchanges led by the Central Bank of Jamaica, with assistance from the CDB, would undertake further studies and analysis, and report to the Meeting of Officials of Ministries of Finance and the Central Banks in January 1990. Other Member States would be kept fully informed of developments.

Disaster Preparedness

Heads of Government, recalling the manner in which the Region responded to the needs of the Government and people of Jamaica in the aftermath of hurricane Gilbert, agreed on the desirability of establishing a mechanism among CARICOM countries which would make possible immediate and coordinated relief to any Member State in the event of a disaster. They agreed that the details of this mechanism be elaborated so that its arrangements can be established in the shortest possible time and in conjunction with the Pan Caribbean Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Project (PCDPPP).

Radio Antilles

The Heads of Government received a report from the Chief Minister of Montserrat on the future of Radio Antilles and expressed their support for the endeavours of the Mission from the Governments of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States which is due to visit the Federal Republic of Germany in August to discuss arrangements for maintaining Radio Antilles as a regional service.

They emphasized the value of Radio Antilles as a regional information service with considerable outreach and its contribution in the areas of cultural cooperation and development, education and disaster preparedness.


The Heads of Government noted with satisfaction the preparations being made for CARIFESTA V to take place in Trinidad and Tobago in 1991.
They noted that the major multi-disciplinary festival of arts would serve to affirm the identity, artistic achievements and rich and varied culture of CARICOM Member States. As an artistic and cultural explosion, CARIFESTA V will focus world attention on, and heighten knowledge and understanding of the achievements and uniqueness of the Caribbean.

Meeting of Ministers responsible for Housing and Settlements

Heads of Government noted that Caribbean Ministers responsible for Housing and Settlements had met for the first time on 27-28th September 1988, in Trinidad and Tobago. They agreed that a final determination regarding the establishment of the Standing Committee of Ministers responsible for Housing and Settlements would be made following an examination of the report of the CARICOM Review Team and that meanwhile the Ministers should meet on an hoc basis, as necessary.

Protection of the Environment

Heads of Government welcomed the fact that the First Meeting of CARICOM Ministers responsible for the Environment was held during 31st May to 2nd June, 1989, given the significance of environmental concerns and the important relationship between Environment and Development. They endorsed the decisions taken by the Ministerial Conference for more effective planning, coordination and management of our environmental resources embodied in the Port -of-Spain Accord on the Management and Conservation of the Caribbean Environment. They also agreed that Meetings of Ministers of the Environment should be held as necessary.

Multilateral Air Transport Agreement

Heads of Government have agreed that the Eastern Caribbean states which are to be parties to the Multilateral Air Transport Agreement – namely Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago – would jointly negotiate, on a group basis, a multilateral air transport agreement between themselves and the United Kingdom based on the “Community of Interest” concept.

In so deciding, Heads of Government were conscious of the importance of tourism to the economies of CARICOM countries and of adequate air service arrangements in support of tourism development. In this regard, they recorded their appreciation for the pivotal role of British West Indian Airways (BWIA) in the growth of tourism in the Eastern Caribbean.

Agricultural Development

The Heads of Government received a report from the Standing Committee of Ministers responsible for Agriculture on the Caribbean Community Programme for Agricultural Development and two of its major implementing institutions, the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) and the Caribbean Food Corporation (CFC) and its subsidiary, the Caribbean Agricultural Trading Company (CATCO).

The Heads of Government endorsed the Caribbean Community Programme for Agricultural Development as a major strategic approach in the Region’s effort in attaining a greater level of food security and enhancing the progress of its national and sub-regional programmes of diversifying the agricultural sector through greater regional production and consumption, and the extra-regional exports of non-traditional agricultural commodities.

The Heads of Government agreed on the major objectives of the Programme to increase the levels of regional food and marketing security, achieve greater diversification of production and markets, increase productivity of the human, physical and financial resources utilised in the sector, improve the technological level of the sector and increase the inflows of resources into the sector.

The Heads of Government expressed satisfaction at the improvements that CARDI had achieved over the last two years, transforming itself into an effective developer and transmitter of agricultural technology to the Region’s farmers.

Conference noted the conclusions of the independent reviews that have been conducted on CFC, and its marketing subsidiary, CATCO, to the effect that both institutions were performing functions critical to the successful implementation of the Region’s agricultural diversification programmes, and that the development of the non-traditional sub-sectors required these organizations to undertake a wide range of activities of a developmental nature.

The Heads of Government endorsed the redefined roles of CFC and CATCO to the effect that CFC would be a developmental institution which would implement commercially viable projects as well as regional developmental programmes and projects – the latter, on the cost plus basis and that CATCO would be concerned only with trading activities and reaffirmed the Region’s strong commitment to these organizations.

The Heads of Government agreed to the need for both of these institutions to be placed on a sounder financing footing, in order to allow them to carry out the functions assigned to them and to mobilise additional financing from donor sources.

In this regard, the Heads of Government agreed that CFC’s shareholders would pay up all outstanding arrears by 31st August, 1989, and would provide, on an annual basis, additional equity for the next four years and strongly requested donor agencies to increase their support for CFC and CATCO and the implementation of the Caribbean Community Programme for Agricultural Development and the OECS Diversification programme.


Heads of Government indicated their support for the work of the Commonwealth Secretariat and other international agencies on the problems affecting the development and viability of small island developing countries (IDCs). They urged full support for this work, with the objective of obtaining greater recognition by the developed countries and major international institutions of the specific problems facing small IDCs. The Heads of Government committed themselves to developing relationships with other small IDCs with a view to maintaining a focus on and support for their common problems.


The Heads of Government observed that the Tenth Meeting of the Conference was being held against a background of encouraging changes and trends in the international political environment. The most notable of these was the new détente in Super Power relations, resulting in the first steps toward disarmament. In addition, inter-state relations were characterised by a greater feeling of trust and a greater inclination to cooperate in seeking solutions to regional conflicts through dialogue rather than through the use of force.

There was also a heightened consciousness of international partnership, with a new willingness to cooperate in the search for solutions to such global problems as the abuse of and trafficking in narcotic drugs, external debt, AIDS, global warming and other threats to the environment.

At the same time, the globalisation of the world economy was creating new centres of economic power, with states combining into large economic groupings and unified markets.

The Heads considered that these changes constituted challenges as well as opportunities for small states such as those of CARICOM. They stressed the need for their states to prepare for responding adequately to the challenges as well as for making maximum use of the opportunities. In this context, they understood the importance of the further strengthening of their own integration process and drew attention to the need for the adoption of coordinated national and regional economic policies.

External Debt

Heads of Government reflected on the intense nature of the debt crisis and took cognisance of the position now generally accepted by the international community that the external debt of many of the developing countries could not now be paid as at present structured, given the prevailing economic realities. They noted the various initiatives being developed to resolve the issues, including the recent statement by the United States Secretary of Treasury, Brady.

Heads of Government gave explicit recognition to the fact that there are debtor countries of the CARICOM region which are among the most heavily indebted developing countries in relation to both the gross domestic product and their debt servicing capacity and that in the case of those countries, this debt is, to a very large extent, held by the multilateral financing institutions. They emphasized the urgent need of these countries for debt service reduction in a programmed way.

Recognizing the gravity of the external debt crisis, the Heads agreed that both the debtor and creditor countries should meet to address the issues involved. They therefore supported the position that an International Debt Conference should be convened to develop a common approach to the resolution of the existing crisis.


The Heads of Government reaffirmed the Community’s interest in the development of closer relations with Latin America and looked forward to the early intensification of that process.

Recalling their previous appeals to Member States of the Organization of American States (OAS) to ratify the Protocol of Cartagena, they noted with great satisfaction that a sufficient number had ratified the Protocol to enable it to come into force, thus paving the way for the removal of the unjust impediment to membership of the OAS for Belize and Guyana contained in the OAS Charter.

The Heads of Government reiterated their demand that similar steps be taken to remove the corresponding provisions of the Treaty of Tlatelolco.

Relations with the European Economic Community

The Heads of Government examined the implications for the Caribbean of the introduction of the Single Europe Act. They noted that the emergence of a Single Europe is a matter that gives rise to a certain degree of uncertainty and concern.

They welcomed the assurance given by the European Community that ACP States will not be disadvantaged by this development but nonetheless were of the view that the concept of “free circulation” could pose a real threat to the Region’s traditional products, especially bananas.

They further agreed that it was necessary to monitor effectively the implications of this process and agreed to participate actively in joint mechanisms established by the ACP and EEC.

They recognized the need for continuity in the leadership of the ACP Secretariat as the ACP group sought to implement Lomé 1V in the changing European economic environment. They therefore expressed their strong support for Mr. Edwin Carrington to continue as Secretary-General of the ACP.

The Heads of Government were also apprised of the status of the negotiations for a fourth convention between the ACP and the EEC which were poised at a delicate stage. They were concerned that the preferential access currently enjoyed by the Region should be maintained and strengthened especially with respect to the entry of bananas into the traditional market after 1992.

They welcomed the commitment by the Community to maintain the Banana Protocol in its present form in the new convention. They urged that clear rules be drawn up in advance of 1992 and that any declaration to be agreed on by the two sides must contain clear and enforceable elements to safeguard traditional ACP suppliers after the removal of trade barriers within Europe.

With regard to finance, the Heads of Government supported the ACP position that there should be a congruence between the objectives of the Convention and means to achieve them. They therefore stressed that the volume of resources should be substantially increased.

The Heads of Government drew attention to the vital importance of tourism for the economies of the Caribbean and urged that provisions for this sector be clearly identified in a separate chapter in the new convention.

They urged that the ACP negotiators continue to be very vigilant to ensure that their interests were well protected.

With regard to the present regional programme, the Heads of Government confirmed their support for the following projects to be financed by the end of the Third Lome Convention: The CARDI Project; the OECS pre-University Education Project; the Suriname/Guyana Telecommunications Project; the Tertiary Student Accommodation Project; the Bahamas Hotel School Project; the OECS Integrated Tourism Project; the CATCO Project; the Regional Tourism Project; and the regional air transport projects at Bequia, Montserrat and Nevis.

The Heads of Government also reaffirmed the principle that regionally approved projects not withdrawn and to which a commitment cannot be made before the end of Lome 111 Convention, should be implemented under Lome IV.


Heads of Government expressed satisfaction with the growing interest shown by other Caribbean countries in establishing closer and more formal arrangements with CARICOM. In this context, they noted the continued growth and development of relations with the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname and looked forward to the further development of these relations in accordance with the interests and aspirations of the peoples of the Caribbean. They also welcomed the continuing interest of Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands in the strengthening of their relations with the Caribbean Community.



Heads of Government reiterated their full support for the independence and territorial integrity of Belize and urged continuation of the negotiating process between Belize and Guatemala, with the additional participation of the United Kingdom, to arrive at an early draft of a comprehensive Treaty which will provide a just and honourable solution to the problems between Belize and Guatemala.

They reaffirmed their resolve to maintain the momentum of international support in favour of Belizean sovereignty, and to resist any special Guatemalan initiatives, both regionally and internationally, that might adversely affect Belize’s interests.

Heads of Government undertook to make clear to the Guatemalans that the present status quo of non-recognition of Belize is unacceptable and that closer relations between CARICOM and Guatemala are pre-conditioned on Guatemala’s acceptance of Belize’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

They called on the Government of the United Kingdom and other friendly states to continue to give Belize all the support necessary to achieve a solution to enable Belize and Guatemala to develop normal relations of peace and good neighbourliness that should exist between two sovereign and independent neighbouring states.


The Heads of Government welcomed the continuing improvement in relations between Guyana and Venezuela manifested in the intensification of existing forms of cooperation for their mutual benefit and in their search for new ones.

With regard to the controversy between these two states, they noted that both Guyana and Venezuela continued to cooperate with the Secretary-General of the United Nations in his discharge of the mandate given him by the Geneva Agreement of 1966 for choosing a means of peaceful settlement.


The Heads of Government issued the following statement:

Heads of Government considered the expressed desire of the Haitian people to establish democracy in that country and took note of recent statements by the Government of Haiti on its intention to fulfil its responsibility in helping to introduce a democratic form of Government.

Heads of Government hoped that the Haitian Government would pursue democratic reforms, including the holding of national elections, in accordance with the provisions of the Haitian Constitution and the sovereign will of the Haitian people and having regard to its commitment to the international Community.

Heads of Government welcomed the report which the Secretariat submitted to them concerning the Special Mission which visited Haiti from 6th to 13th June 1989. They agreed that, based on an understanding that a process of reform is being initiated in Haiti, a team comprising the Foreign Ministers of The Bahamas, Jamaica, Saint Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago should visit Haiti in response to the invitation of the Government of Haiti in order to meet a wide cross-section of the Haitian people and to reaffirm CARICOM’s previously stated solidarity with them.

Heads of Government indicated their readiness to respond in a positive manner to any request to share relevant skills and experiences of CARICOM Member States with the Haitian people.

Central America and Panama

The Heads of Government took note of the important advances made since the Ninth Meeting of Conference in the Central American peace process with the agreements reached by the five Central American Presidents in El Salvador. In this context, they also took note of the efforts being made for the demobilisation and repatriation of irregular forces, and, in general, for the strengthening of democracy in the region.

The Heads of Government nevertheless noted with concern that the momentum of the peace process had recently slackened. They called on the states concerned to maintain their efforts for the uninterrupted completion of the process. At the same time, they appealed to the states with interests in the Region to respect the independence and sovereignty of Central American states and for the right to live free from intervention or interference in their internal affairs.

They also expressed the hope that the meeting of Central American Presidents agreed upon in El Salvador would be convened with the least possible delay.

The Heads of Government issued the following statement on Panama:

The Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community today discussed the situation in Panama resulting from the annulment of the elections in that country in May 1989. The Heads of Government strongly condemned this unwarranted assault on the democratic process by the military regime.

They expressed their firm support for the efforts of the Organization of American States (OAS) to cooperate with the steps being taken by the people of Panama to return their country to the democratic path through dialogue, consensus and a transitional arrangement to replace the regime and establish a framework for free, fair and properly conducted elections.

The Heads of Government reiterated their conviction that the problems in Panama should be resolved without foreign intervention. They proposed that all economic and other sanctions imposed against Panama should be withdrawn as soon as acceptable transitional arrangements have been established.

They called for total respect for the national sovereignty of Panama and for full and unconditional observance of the provisions of the Torrijos-Carter Treaty.


Southern Africa

The Heads of Government noted that Security Council Resolution 435 had begun to be implemented in Namibia and that CARICOM States were cooperating in that implementation through participation in the United Nations Transition Assistance Group. They expressed the hope that this Resolution would be implemented in a deliberate and sustained manner in such a way as would guarantee the holding of free and fair elections as called for by the United Nations.

They stressed the need for continued vigilance by the international community in order to ensure that South Africa complied strictly with the terms of Resolution 435. They also underscored the importance of rendering to Namibia the support which it will need in the various aspects of its preparation for the implementation of the Resolution. In this regard, they decided that, apart from whatever assistance states could give on an individual basis, they would seek to define a role for CARICOM at this juncture as a collective contribution to the international pressure for free and fair elections in Namibia.

They reaffirmed their support for the right of the oppressed majority of South Africa to freedom and self-determination, and reiterated the call for the intensification of sanctions and other forms of pressure by the international community on South Africa for the dismantling of the Apartheid system and for the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela.

Apartheid in Sport

The Heads of Government issued the following statement:

The Tenth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community today considered the provisions of the Resolution on Apartheid in Sport adopted by the International Cricket Conference last January. Conference noted with pride and appreciation the important role played by the West Indies Cricket Board of Control in persuading other international cricketing authorities to agree on a concrete and unified set of sanctions against cricketers who breach the sports boycott against apartheid South Africa after 1st April 1989.

The Heads of Government pledged their support for the ICC Resolution; agreed to maintain their vigilance against sporting contact With South Africa; and looked forward to increased cooperation with the rest of the international community in helping by this and other means to bring apartheid to an end.

Western Sahara

In light of the positive progress made since they last met towards a just and lasting settlement of the Western Sahara issue, the Heads of Government decided:

(i) to support actively the Peace Plan of the United Nations Secretary-General which has the objective of holding a referendum on self-determination for the people of Western Sahara under the auspices and supervision of the United Nations in co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU);

(ii) to support all international efforts aimed at ensuring peace, security and stability in the Magreb region.


The Heads of Government accepted the offer by the Government of Jamaica to host the Eleventh Meeting of the Conference and also accepted the offer of the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis to host the Twelfth Meeting.

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